• Goldenseal
  • Black Cohosh
  • Laddy Slipper Orchid
  • Trillium
 

by Susan Leopold

Time to Ramp Up Conservation Efforts

Last spring trespassers dug trash bags, laundry baskets and buckets full of ramps (Allium tricoccum) from the woodland ravine of Goldenseal Sanctuary neighbor, Diane DonCarlos.1 Fortunately police responded to a call from Diane, and they were able to track down the ramp thieves. When the police returned some of the stolen ramps, Diane was able to replant them back in the holler further from the road in hopes they would be protected next spring. Diane’s rich ramp holler has been targeted each spring, and she says over two acres of her land have been completely poached of all ramps. Though we know there are many ethical harvesters, there is also sadly an epidemic of drug use and poverty that has plagued rural Appalachia, and ramps (like ginseng) provide a means to an end. Sadly this was the case in Diana’s story, and the police were able to track the poachers because they were already multiple offenders. This is just one story of many coming from the craze for ramps in rural Appalachia. At this time there is no way of knowing where ramps are being harvested, and no efforts are in place to track ramp populations, except for a few unique studies looking at regional populations.

 

rampsreturnedStolen ramps that were returned to Diane DonCarlos

Ramp festivals are a rich cultural and economic component of rural areas, as well as a wonderful celebration of a spring medicinal plant, as are other wild greens that are important for cleansing the system after a long winter’s diet of what was traditionally meat and stored foods. The recent increased interest in wild foods has created an unsustainable demand on a vulnerable native medicinal species that is being predominately harvested from the wild. Lawrence Davis-Hollander, ethnobotanist wrote back in 2011 that at least two million plants of wild ramps were harvested that year based on average harvests of various ramp festivals and online sales through wholesalers.2 Many botanists and ecologists from various conservation organizations and state and federal agencies were reporting on the declining population of ramps.3 These concerns prompted the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation back in 2012 to work on a plan that would monitor wild ramp populations, develop guidelines for plant conservation practices and further fund initiatives that would find solutions to ramp conservation to ensure protection from over-harvesting and also work to develop a supply for restaurants and festivals.4 The following recommendations were made after the completed study: that the harvesting of wild ramps should be limited through a harvesting permit program, cultivation should be encouraged, and educational programs must be put in place to make people aware of the issues created by over-harvesting and to expose them to the basics of plant conservation.5 Thus, it makes sense that the Ramp Fest of the Hudson has pioneered a wonderful solution – it is the first leaf-only festival, meaning that only the ramp leaves, not the bulbs are sold and cooked at the festival. This ensures the most sustainable harvesting method possible. If other ramp festivals were to also take notice of the success of the Hudson Ramp fest, this effort could have a huge impact on ramp conservation while still supporting rural economic benefits.

 

United Plant Savers supports three key components to protect ramps and ensure future viability of populations that the Hudson Ramp Festival has pioneered.6

Sustainable Harvesting Practices:

  1. ONE LEAF PER PLANT: Harvest only the leaves, and leave some ramps fully intact. Rather than cutting off all the leaves from a bulb, take only one leaf per plant. This will leave a leaf for photosynthesis, allowing the plant to continue to grow and reproduce (without any leaves, the plant could go into dormancy). Digging up whole ramps not only reduces ramp population and prevents reproduction, but a disturbance to the soil disrupts its ecology and lets invasive plants become established.
  2. LEAVES ONLY PLEASE: Maintaining our ramp supply will require a transition to a “leaves-only” approach. Ask your ramp vendor to consider changing their practices to those described above so that ramps will grow for years to come. Also, consider that we need to compensate responsible harvesters fairly for maintaining the growth of ramps in their region by paying a price for the leaves as if the root is still attached.
  3. GROW THEM: We can continue to enjoy ramps while allowing them to proliferate in the wild. Ramps can be cultivated, either by growing plants from seed or by transplanting bulbs.

rampwww.rampfesthudson.com/images/pdfs/ Glynwood_flyer.pdf 2015 Ramp Fest will be on May 12 It is important to highlight that the Cherokee have used the method of only harvesting the leaves for centuries and that it has been documented that Europeans also use this method of only harvesting the leaves for the Allium ursinum native to Europe and Asia.7 Native Americans used the leaves to treat colds and only used the bulbs as a purge, and a tonic was used to treat intestinal worms.8

In New York Allium tricoccum var. burdickii is listed as endangered, and harvesting is forbidden. The status of ramps in Tennessee is that they are of special concern and considered commercially exploited. In Maine and Rhode Island they are also given the status of special concern.9 Ramps are protected in Quebec and are legally protected in Gatineau Park since 1980;10 they even have a toll-free hotline for people to report theft of ramps. In spring of 2002 the Great Smoky Mountains National Park banned the collection of ramps after a 5-year study indicated a decline in the park’s ramp populations.11 The study provided insight that once a patch was extensively harvested it could take up to 20 plus years to recover.12 The observations from the study documented that ramp harvesters collect their quotas from one patch, leaving a few individuals to provide seed to regenerate the patch.

Last year United Plant Savers used its “At-Risk” Tool to evaluate the conservation concern in regards to ramps.

Ramps scored a high 50 (see our master score sheet in the article on the “At-Risk” Tool). Because ramps are a long-lived perennial that is slow to reproduce from seed, taking more than seven years to reach maturity, their life history makes them extremely vulnerable. The effect of harvest is also high because when harvesting the bulbs, you are taking the entire plant out of its population and creating fertile ground for invasive species. The abundance of ramp populations is unknown in most areas, but its range is wide, spanning throughout Appalachia, and therefore they received a moderate score on our Tool.

Although in the wild they are mostly found in damp wooded hollers among other sensitive at-risk plants, they do have the ability to grow in a variety of soil conditions, therefore the habitat and abundance scores were relatively low. The final category that looks at demand in the marketplace was high since we can track the increase in demand from the festivals, farmers markets, grocery stores, and restaurants. In June 2015, United Plant Savers Board of Directors voted to place ramps on our “To-Watch” List, and we will continue to gather additional data and then re-evaluate for potential listing on our “At-Risk” List.

Most evident in using our assessment tool is that we can greatly reduce the vulnerability of ramps being overharvested if we use the leaves instead of harvesting the entire plant. We cannot change the life history of ramps, but we can change the way we harvest them, and we can support those land owners who would like to grow ramps in their woods. Forest farming ramps to sell seeds, harvesting the greens, and selling the bulbs in small quantities for specialty foods and for replanting stock could make a huge difference in ensuring a rich cultural and ecological heritage is preserved for future generations.

REFERENCES
1. Report submitted to Police by Diane DonCarlos Spring 2014, even though the ramps were returned the Police did not press charges.
2. Davis-Hollander, L. 2011. Ramps (Wild Leeks): When is Local not Kosher?, 2011 www.grit.com/food/ramps-wild-leeks.aspx#axzz2yCpIbusb
3. Davis-Hollander, L. 2011. Ramps (Wild Leeks): When is Local not Kosher?, 2011 www.grit.com/food/ramps-wild-leeks.aspx#axzz2yCpIbusb
4. DEC 2012. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Web. 8 May 2012.
5. Edgar, B. Brubaker, H. Tuminelli, K. 2013 “Pluggin the Leak on Wild Leeks, Threats of overharvesting wild leek populations in Northern New York”. www.stlawu.edu/sites/default/files/resource/wild_leek_conservation.pdf
6. Hudson Ramp Fest- www.rampfesthudson.com
7. Moyer, Ben. 2008. Ramps bring signs of spring throughout Appalachia; wild leek festivals signal the start of the season. Pittsburgh Post - Gazette B1.
8. Moerman, Daniel.1998 Native American Ethnobotany. Portland, OR, Timber.
9. Plant Profile USDA: http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=altr3
10. Nault, A. and Gagnon, D. 1993. Ramet demography of Allium tricoccum, a spring ephemeral, perennial forest herb. Journal of Ecology. 81:101-119. Chapman, Sasha. 2005. Quantum Leeks. Toronto Life 39(4):85-86.
11. Hoyle, Z. 2004. Are ramp festivals sustainable? United States Department of Agriculture - Forest
 Service. Web 4 Apr. 2012. www.srs.fs.usda.gov/news/65
12. Blanchett, S. 2002. Park Service declines to revisit ban on harvesting ramps. [Internet]. 2002 May 3 [cited 2012 April 7]. The Newport Plain Talk. Available from http://newportplaintalk.com/story/4731.

The Two Sides of Chaga

by Robert Dale Rogers

Chaga ( Inonotus obliquus )Over the past decade, herbalists have increasingly embraced the use of medicinal mushrooms in clinical practice. These members of the Fungi Kingdom offer many health benefits, and there remains much to be learned about them. Some mushrooms, such as reishi (Ganoderma lucidum), turkey tail (Trametes versicolor), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) have undergone numerous in vitro, in vivo, and assorted human clinical trials. These involve studies on the benefits of the fruiting body and mycelium, largely involving commercially-produced extracts. Chaga (Inonotus obliquus), a sterile conk wildcrafted from birch trees, has gained increasing popularity over the past five years. The internet is replete with stories of incredible harvests, as well as numerous multilevel marketing companies claiming outrageous medicinal properties. It should be noted that there is not one human clinical trial yet published on this medicinal mushroom. This demand for chaga has led to a feverish state of over-harvesting that may prove to be the ruin of an important health product. What is generally not appreciated is that the sterile conk, or living organism, is only found on one in 20,000 birch trees. Some readers will immediately react in denial, but the reality is chaga

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Framing a Domestic Market for American Ginseng: A Conversation

by Erika Galentin

...it may also be true that ginseng gains resilience [as a species] by attracting different elements of human society–not just people involved in medicine, but also in culture and commerce.” David A. Taylor, Ginseng, the Devine Root American ginseng ( Panax quinquefolius ) berriesEvidenced by the United Plant Savers’ Ginseng Summit of 2014 and the North Carolina Natural Products Association’s International Ginseng Expo of 2015, there is tender evolution taking place in regards to the American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) industry. Questions relating to everything from conservation barriers, cultivation practices, federal and international regulations, economics, and genetics are steadily being discussed as even deeper questions begin to emerge. Interest in this iconic species is gently spreading, like water on fertile soil, affecting landowners, growers, regulators, law enforcement officials, ecologists, geneticists, pharmacognosists, ethnobotanists, non-profits, natural product industry leaders, and healthcare professionals in pursuit of “wildlife” conservation, market stability, economic initiatives, medical advancement, and even cultural preservation. In these evolutionary times, two facts remain steadfast: 1) The American ginseng industry functions, as it has for centuries, on the fuel of export market trade. Like an aorta flowing from the American heartland, it is argued that this export-focused industry has paradoxically

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Restoration of the Heart, Lessons from the  All Mighty Shorea faguetiana Tree

by Susan Leopold, PhD

Tamara Negara

Climbing the Koompasia excelsNearly twenty-one years had passed since I had cast my wish at Kanya kamayi into the visual well of both the sun setting and moon rising at the tip of southern India. The next place I landed after my pilgrimage travel adventure was Malaysia. Back then no one had cell phones, my Nikon camera used film, and backpackers relied on guidebooks and talked to strangers to navigate unknown terrain. It was a flyer at a hostel in Penang that would lead me on an ethnobotanical trip to the Malaysian rainforest to visit a community of Orang Asli. This opportunity was with a guide who was a Malay linguist and anthropologist. We would go where the wild elephants roamed the rainforest, along with mouse deer, millions of tiny leaches and stay in the forest as guests of the talented nose flute players and dance with them on bamboo platforms that bounced like a trampoline into the night. Now I had returned with a smart phone in hand as my digital camera and operative guidebook. Once I landed a reality check set in, I saw a landscape that was once forest now converted to a

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Slippery Elm  in the Herbal Marketplace - Past, Present & Future

Slipping Away?

Slippery Elm in the Herbal Marketplace - Past, Present & Future

by Eric P. Burkhart, PhD

Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.) is one of the most well-known, and widely used, medicinal tree barks native to the United States. It is currently included on the United Plant Savers “At-Risk” List due to concerns over the continued industry dependence on wild harvested material to fill market demand. The name slippery elm refers to the texture of the inner bark, especially when moistened. The dried bark has historically been mixed with water and applied topically to treat wounds and skin irritations, and internally for sore throat, coughs and gastrointestinal conditions. It contains a complex assortment of chemical and nutritional compounds including mucilage (hexoses, pentoses, methylpentoses), glucose, polyuronides, tannins, starches, fat, phytosterols, and various nutrients (calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium) (Braun and Cohen, 2010). Native Americans utilized a variety of tree barks in their pharmacopoeia (Moerman, 1998). Slippery elm was one of a few (including sassafras and black cherry) to be accepted by European settlers. It has subsequently become a commonly traded bark in the US herbal marketplace. Surveys by the American Herbal Products Association (AHPA) provide a glimpse into the volume of slippery

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